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Zirconia (ZrO2) Ceramics

Zirconia Ceramics Description

Zirconia Ceramic Materials

Zirconia ceramic, also known as zirconium oxide (ZrO2), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. Its most naturally occurring form is the mineral baddeleyite with a monoclinic crystalline structure. 

Zirconium oxide ceramics have the highest toughness and strength at room temperature of all the advanced ceramic materials. It also has high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and high resistance to corrosion. Its unique resistance to crack propagation and high thermal expansion make it an excellent material for joining ceramics and metals such as steel.

Zirconia Ceramics Structures

There are three types of crystal structures of zirconia ceramics: cubic crystal,  tetragonal and monoclinic. Pure zirconia is monoclinic (m), under ambient conditions. With increasing temperature, the material transforms to a tetragonal crystal structure (t) at ∼1170 °C and then to a cubic crystal structure (c), followed by fluorite structure at ∼2370 °C with melting at 2716 °C.

Zirconia structures

Zirconia Ceramics Properties

Compound Formula ZrO2
Molecular Weight 123.22
Appearance White
Melting Point 2,715° C (4,919° F)
Boiling Point 4,300° C (7,772° F)
Density >5.68 g/cm3
Water absorption <0>
Hardness 1350 HV
Hot expansion coefficient 9.5×10-6 /°C
Fracture toughness 8.0 MPa m½


Zirconia Ceramics Application

– Production of hard ceramics. 
– Protective coating on particles of titanium dioxide pigments.
– Refractory material, in insulation, abrasives and enamels.
– Stabilized ZrO2 is used in oxygen sensors and fuel cell membranes.
– Solid electrolyte in electrochromic devices.
– Dental crowns, zirconia crowns.

zirconia ceramic dental plants

Zirconium Oxide Products

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Your Zirconia Ceramics Supplier

Advanced Ceramic Materials (ACM) is a leading supplier of zirconia ceramic products of the highest quality for a wide range of applications. We are happy to provide advice on materials, design, and application. Feel free to contact us for any questions about ZrO2 or other ceramic materials that are not listed on the website. 


Zirconia Ceramic Definition & Application Fields