Piezoelectric ceramic is the general designation of ferroelectric ceramics with piezoelectric effect through the polarization treatment of polycrystals that made by mixing oxide (zirconia, lead oxide, titanium oxide, etc.) with high-temperature sintering and solid reaction. With good mechanical and stable piezoelectric properties, piezoelectric ceramics have been widely used in sensors, the ultrasonic transducer, microdisplacement device, and other electronic components, etc. as an important force, heat, electricity, light-sensitive functional material.
With the continuous research and improvement of materials technology, and the rapid development of electronic, information, aerospace and other high-tech fields, the production technology and application development of piezoelectric ceramic with high intelligent materials has become a hot topic.
The history of piezoelectric ceramics
In 1880, the Curie brothers first discovered the piezoelectric effect of tourmaline and began the history of piezoelectricity.
In 1894, Voigt pointed out that it was possible to have a piezoelectric effect on the crystals of the twenty point groups of the asymmetrical center. Quartz is a representative of piezoelectric crystals and it has been applied. During the World War I, Curie’s successor Langevin, was the first to use the piezoelectric effect of quartz to make an underwater ultrasonic detector, which was used to detect submarines, thus opening the page of piezoelectric applications.
The development of piezoelectric materials and their applications was attributed to the discovery of BaTiO3 ceramics in World War II. In 1947, Roberts applied high pressure for polarization treatment on BaTiO3 ceramics and obtained the voltage of piezoelectric ceramics. Subsequently, Japan developed the application of BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic actively to make ultrasonic transducers, high-frequency transducers, pressure sensors, filters, resonators and other piezoelectric devices. The study continued until the mid-1950s.
Since the late eighties, people have developed the ceramic materials for ferroelectric ceramics. In this way, the single crystal materials of the iron and electric body were successfully developed, which laid a foundation for the three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging. At present, new breakthroughs have been made in the application of nanotechnology to the fabrication of piezoelectric materials.
Currently, the world is developing lead-free piezoelectric ceramics to protect the environment and pursue health.
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